|Call||Career Development Fellowship (CDF)|
Plasmodium vivax burden, range and transmission among Duffy-negative inhabitants in Cameroon (VIBRANT)
|University of Dschang||Cameroon|
University of Dschang
Senior Lecturer- Researcher
|Type||Name||Title||University||Start Date||End Date|
|Msc||Keming Eva Mai||Ms||University of Dschang||2019||2021|
|Msc||Nguene Darlin Bean||Mr||University of Dschang||2019||2021|
Malaria Neglected Infectious Diseases (NID)
Many studies have reported high efficacy and safety of artesunate
A total of 242 children were randomized to receive AS
This study demonstrated that AS
Remote areas of many low and middle income (LMI) countries have poor access to HIV viral load (HIV VL) testing. The SAMBA-II (Simple Amplification-based Assay) Semi-Q Whole Blood Test (Diagnostics for the Real World (DRW), Cambridge, UK) is a point of care assay which uses leucodepletion technology to allow whole blood testing in remote settings. 1540 consecutive HIV-positive clinic patients in Cameroon (250), UK (633), Ukraine (412) and Zimbabwe (245) donated venous blood (all countries) and finger-prick blood (all except UK) for testing on SAMBA-II. SAMBA II results were compared with simultaneous plasma results on the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL) viral load assay and interpreted as either <1000 RNA copies/ml or ≥1000 RNA copies/ml. For 1528 venous whole-blood samples tested on SAMBA II, overall percent agreement with the reference test at a cut-off of HIV VL ≥1000 cps/ml was 96.9% (1480/1528 95% CI 95.9-97.7), negative percent agreement 97.7% (1259/1289 95% CI 96.7-98.4), positive percent agreement 92.5% (221/239 95% CI 88.4-95.5). For 854 finger-prick samples there was 95.0% (811/854 95% CI 93.3-96.3) overall percent agreement; negative percent agreement 98.0% (625/638, 95% CI 96.5-98.9); positive percent agreement 86.1% (186/216 95% CI 80.8-90.4). These rose to 93.5% (82.1, 98.6), 97.6% (95.6, 98.8) and 95.6% (93.3, 97.3) after exclusion of aberrant results from the Ukraine centre. These results show a high level of agreement between SAMBA-II and a laboratory-based assay. SAMBA-II has a performance that is suitable to use as a VL point of care assay in remote settings
Malaria is still a threat to public health as it remains the first endemic disease in the world. It is a pervasive parasitic disease in tropical and subtropical regions where asymptomatic malaria infection among humans serves as a significant reservoir for transmission. A rapid and correct diagnosis is considered to be an important strategy in the control of the disease especially in children, who are the most vulnerable group. This study assessed the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in children at the Nkolbisson health area in Yaoundé, Cameroon. A cross-sectional study design and a convenience sampling plan were used. A total of 127 participants were recruited after informed and signed consent from parents and/or guardians. Blood samples were collected by finger-pricking and venipuncture from children aged 6 months to 10 years and then screened for asymptomatic parasitemia by a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), light microscopy (LM) staining with Giemsa and 18S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for speciation. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. The study identified 85 children who were positive from the PCR, 95 positive from the RDT and 71 from the LM, revealing a malaria prevalence of 66.9%, 74.8% and 55.9%, respectively. The prevalence was not observed to be dependent on the sex and age group of the participants. Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant species followed by Plasmodium malariae and then Plasmodium ovale. The RDT and LM had the same sensitivity (90.6%) with a slight difference in their specificity (RDT: 57.1%; LM: 54.8%). The RDT also demonstrated higher positive and negative predictive values compared with those of the LM.
Background: There was an increase in the number of malaria cases in Cameroon in 2018 that could reflect changes in provider practice, despite effective interventions. In this study, we assessed the diagnostic performance of two malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) for diagnostic confirmation of suspected cases of malaria in public and private health facilities in two malaria transmission settings in Cameroon. Methods: We evaluated the diagnostic performance of CareStart pf and SD Bioline Pf/PAN mRDT and compared these parameters by RDT type and transmission setting. Nested PCR and blood film microscopy were used as references. The chi square test was used for independent sample comparisons, while the McNemar’s test was used to test for the dependence of categorical data in paired sample testing. A p < 0.05 was considered significant in all comparisons. The R (v.4.0.2) software was used for analyses. Results: A total of 1126 participants consented for the study in the four sites. The diagnostic accuracy of the CareStart Pf mRDT was 0.93.6% (0.911–0.961) in Yaoundé, 0.930% (0.90–0.960) in Ngounso, 0.84% (0.794–0.891) in St Vincent Catholic Hospital Dschang and 0.407 (0.345–0.468) in Dschang district hospital. For SD Bioline Pf/PAN the accuracy was 0.759 (0.738–0.846) for St Vincent Catholic Hospital Dschang and 0.426 (0.372–0.496) for the Dschang district hospital. The accuracy was slightly lower in each case but not statistically different when PCR was considered as the reference. The likelihood ratios of the positive and negative tests were high in the high transmission settings of Yaoundé (10.99 (6.24–19.35)) and Ngounso (14.40 (7.89–26.28)) compared to the low transmission settings of Dschang (0.71 (0.37–1.37)) and St Vincent Catholic hospital (7.37 (4.32−12.59)). There was a high degree of agreement between the tests in Yaoundé (Cohen’s Kappa: 0.85 ± 0.05 (0.7–0.95)) and Ngounso (Cohen’s Kappa: 0.86 ± 0.05 (0.74, 0.97)) and moderate agreement in St Vincent hospital Dschang (k: 0.58 ± 0.06 (0.44–0.71)) and poor agreement in the District Hospital Dschang (Cohen’s Kappa: −0.11 ± 0.05 (−0.21–0.01)). The diagnostic indicators of the SD Bioline Pf/PAN were slightly better than for CareStart Pf mRDT in St Vincent Catholic hospital Dschang, irrespective of the reference test. Conclusions: Publicly procured malaria rapid diagnostic tests in Cameroon have maintained high accuracy (91–94%) in the clinical diagnosis of malaria in high malaria transmission regions of Cameroon, although they failed to reach WHO standards. We observed an exception in the low transmission region of Dschang, West region, where the accuracy tended to be lower and variable between facilities located in this town. These results underscore the importance of the routine monitoring of the quality and performance of malaria RDTs in diverse settings in malaria endemic areas.